1929 Hubben


Wilhelm Hubben, DIE QUÄKER IN DER DEUTSCHEN VERGANGENHEIT (The Quakers in the German Past), 1929 Quäker-Verlag, Leizig. Written in German.

On pages 71 and 72, Hubben shows a transcript in German of the first passport request, made 8 May 1685, naming as signers Gerhardt Hendrichs, Hans Peter CASSEL*, and Peter Schuhmacher. For the most part, his transcript reads the same as Michel's with the exception of the Cassel error and the transposing of some words, presumably in an effort to correct the German grammar in the original.

I have only the pages in question and there is no evident source quoted for this section, so for the time being, we can blame Hubben for Hull's and Bender's errors. Hubben may have an earlier source listed elsewhere in his book. Hull does footnote Hubben's book and page number as his source, as does Bender. However, it's probably fair to suppose that Samuel W Pennypacker's insistence in various published material (ca 1899) that Hans Peter was from Krefeld likely influenced Hubben. Johannes Cassel's full name may have been Johannes Peter Cassel and if so, Hans Peter would be an informal version of Johannes Peter, which would help explain how he may have been assumed to be the signer of the passport requests.

Page 71:

"Die weitere hartnäckige Weigerung der Quäker, den Kirchenzehnten und die Türkensteuer zu zahlen un auch die ortsüblichen Wachen zu stellen, veranlaßte 1684 den Amtsschaffner Schmal in Hochheim zu Eingaben an die Regierung, die Ausweisung der "närrischen Sekte" zu verfügen. Der amtlich ausgeübte Druck wurde stärker und stärker, und am 9. Mai 1685 meldete Schmall: "Welcher Gestalt drei Haußgesäß Quäker zu der ganzen Gemeinde großen Freude das Ihrige verkaufen und nach Holland oder England sich begeben wollen, zeiget der Beischluß. Ob ich ich sie nun nach Erlegung des Zehnpfennigs ziehen lassen und ihnen willfahren solle, frage ich an." Das beigefügte Gesuch der Quäker lautete:"

Translation by Lou and Cris Hueneke:

The further stubborn refusal of the Quakers to pay the church tithes and the Turkish war tax and also to stand watch over the town induced 1684 official (Amtschaffner) Schmal in Hochheim to submit to the government a report of the expulsion of the"crazy sect/cult." Official pressure became greater and greater, and on May 9, 1685, Schmal advised, "It appears that three Quaker households, to the great joy of the entire community, are selling their belongings and want to betake themselves to Holland or England, as shown in the attached. My question is, should I let them go and bid them farewell if they pay the ten pennies?" The attached request of the Quakers reads:" (Hubben then quotes the first, May 8, 1685, passport request made by Schumacher, Hendrichs, Umstatt, altho he names Cassel instead of Umstatt).


Copies of these pages were obtained from the Friends Historical Library of Swarthmore College, 500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, PA 19081-1399, phone 610-328-8496, fax 610-690-5728.

*Note: According to THE HISTORY OF CHESTER COUNTY PENNSYLVANIA, Futhey and Cope, 1881, page 22:
1,20,1686. "The Jeffries," Thomas Arnold Mr.(master) from London.
Johannes Cassel, a German; his children, Arnold, Peter, Elizabeth, Mary and Sarah.
Sarah Shoemaker of the Palatinate, widow; George 23 years old, Abraham, 19, Barbary, 20, Isaac, 17 Susanna, 13, Elizabeth, 11, Benjamin, 10 - allher children. Joseph Ransted, Gardner, from London." (Submitted by Dottie Witkop)


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Hans Peter Passport